The basic imagery of Turkmen idioms

Narbibish Shammayeva

The basic imagery of Turkmen idioms

(66th Annual Meeting of the PIAC Göttingen, 2024)

Gives the hint to the lifestyle of our ancestors and opportunity to compare images of Altaic world. In this article, more attention is paid to the education of youth based on the traditions and moral ideals of the Turkmen people, which are reflected in folklore and poetry. Indeed, the treasure of wisdom is family traditions, fairy tales, proverbs and sayings, and of course our wise ancestors who left us priceless poems by Makhtymkuli, Dovletmamet Azadi and many other poets. In the family, the foundations of the child’s consciousness, behavior and self-esteem are laid. After the family, the school is the second most important social institution that takes part in the formation of personality. The school gives not only knowledge, but also forms independence and adequate self-esteem. The child learns the norms and rules of society.

Folk pedagogy, fairy tales, proverbs and sayings, verses of great philosophers and eposes are a pure source to help a school teacher – a linguist, native language teacher. The Turkmen people’s deep understanding of healthy morality is distinguished by its unique features and national roots that go back centuries. Morality begins with the first habits of a child, from his subsequent actions, which eventually turn into human behavior. The main task of moral education is to train the moral consciousness of the younger generation, to develop moral feeling, moral will and moral thinking skills.

In Turkmen families, the younger generation grows up in the national customs of our ancestors, which help in developing moral attitudes in the soul of the child and pure moral norms in the public consciousness of the young generation. Children are brought up by the example of their elders, because it is true that “a reasonable way of learning is personal example”. The behavior of parents and older generations in the family is reflected in the behavior of children. Regarding this, Makhtymkuli writes:

Bir ýigitiniň aslyn bileý diýseňiz,
Märekede oturyp-turuşyn görüň.
Birew bilen aşna bolaý diýseňiz,
Awwal ykrarynda duruşyn görüň.

If you want to know one’s origin,
Pay attention to his behavior at the party.
If you are going to be friend with him,
Pay attention to keeping his first promise.

These verses are known to every Turkmen, and indeed, on party or at guests, the behavior of young people is thrown into the eye. For example, this is the way of Turkmen, if there is an elder at the table, then you have no right to be the first to touch the food, otherwise it will show your ignorance, so the family did not teach you this rule. Such behavior puts a young person under the authority of this family. People will say “He didn’t see family upbringing” – uneducated, “We can’t be educated at work” – in the uneducated family, etc. The poet correctly concludes that if a person is brought up in a family, he knows how to behave himself among people.

Turkmen fairy tales are distinguished by the fact that much attention is paid to the development of independence in young people. For example, in the fairy tale “A hundred gold” – a hundred golden coins, the only son of the old man Mammet, who behaves very competently with his father’s money. After achieving success, the old man gave him another hundred golden coins and sent him with a caravan to distant countries. Each time he spent a hundred gold coins to learn how to play dutar, learn to read and play chess. Try the action of the old moth watcher. And at the end of the fairy tale, the those knowledge helped him to become a well-known person.

Moral: Knowledge is the road to prosperity.

Attentiveness and ingenuity saved the boy. An old man lost his camel and went to look for it. On the road, he met a young boy and the old man asked whether he had seen a camel on the road. The boy asks: “Is your camel white?”, and the old man answers: “Yes.” ” Camel’s right eye was blind? “Yes,” the old man replied. The young boy asks again: ” Is the front left leg lame,” the old man answers: “Yes.” “Was your camel scabby”, the old man asks: “Have you seen my camel?”. “No, I didn’t see your camel,” answers the young boy.

The old man got angry and said, “Ah, you thief, what do you want to confess, now I will take you to the judge.” Having said that, he took the young man to the judge. Having listened to the old man, the judge turned to the young man and said, “If you have not seen a camel, how do you know that the camel is lame, blind in the right eye and has scabies, and it is also white.” The young man said, “I went from our house on the big road to bring some brushwood for stove to bake bread, then I noticed that all the grass on the left side of the road was nibbled, and white camel hair was on the trunks of the trees, and when I looked at the trail of the camel noticed a deepening of the front left leg. And I made conclusion, that white scabby camel lame on his left leg and blind in his right eye was going along the road.”.

Moral: vigilance and and attentiveness is your protection.


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