The Turco-Mongolian Tradition in the Later Jochid Historiography: What Did They Refer to?

Nagamine Hiroyuki

The Turco-Mongolian Tradition in the Later Jochid Historiography: What Did They Refer to?

(66th Annual Meeting of the PIAC Göttingen, 2024)

This presentation focuses on the analysis of Turco-Mongolian tradition in the Later Jochid Ulus historiography. In the past, Mihály Dobrovits analysed the Turco-Mongolian tradition by classifying it into five versions: Pulad Chingsang’s original version, Rashīd al-Dīn’s Jāmi‘ al-Tawārikh, Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī’s Tārīkh-i Guzīda, Sharaf al-Dīn ‘Alī Yazdī’s Ẓafar-nāma, and “the Late Golden Horde (Later Jochid Ulus).” Then, what exactly did the Later Jochid Ulus sources refer to and how did they describe the Turco-Mongolian tradition? The arguments of this presentation are as follows. 1) While Rashīd al-Dīn’s Jāmi‘ al-Tawārikh continued to be authoritative in the Later Jochid Ulus sources and continued to have a significant influence on them, it was the Timurid sources, such as Yazdī’s Ẓafar-nāma (and sometimes Mustawfī’s Tārīkh-i Guzīda), which also had a significant influence on them. 2) The treatment of Börte Chino and Qo’ai Maral in the Later Jochid Ulus sources is quite uneven, but these genealogies continued to be narrated. This indicates that they may have attached importance to the Mongol tribal ancestors (Börte Chino and Qo’ai Maral). 3) The wolf motif, which had been marginalised since the Jāmi‘ al-Tawārikh, occasionally appears in various sources from Central Asia and the Volga-Ural region. This indicates that there may have been a history (whether this was a written history or an oral tradition is uncertain) circulating that carried on some Mongol tribal ancestorial traditions. In conclusion, the Later Jochid Ulus historiography inherited the Turco-Mongolian tradition, which blended the Jāmi‘ al-Tawārikh and the Ẓafar-nāma (and sometimes the Tārīkh-i Guzīda). And it is possible that a history of some Mongol tribal ancestorial traditions may have formed the basis of them.