The birth of the khong tayiji viceroyalty in the Mongol-Oirad world
(34th Annual Meeting Berlin, 1991)
After the establishment of the Mongol Empire, in the Mongol-Oirad worldcomprising the eastern half of the empire, habitually the khan would personally lead the left wing, being in charge of all affairs relating to China, while the viceroy, leading the right wing, would be in charge of conquering and ruling the nomad peoples of the western areas. In the beginning, the viceroy was called jinong (晉王), Altan Khan, who was born as a son of a jinong, his elder brother continued to use the title jinong while giving the title khong tayiji (皇太子) to his own viceroy. From that time on, khong tayiji became the title of those Mongolian kings and nobility who were in charge of conquering and ruling the Oirads. After the Oirads gained independence from Mongolia, the first Oirad khan, Güsi Qagan of the Khoshut, appointed the tribal leader of the Dzungars as his viceroy, conferring the title bagatur khong tayiji upon him. The title hong tayiji, borne by all Dzungar tribal leaders following Tsewang Rabtan, did not mean that they became Oirad khans. Rather the were the viceroys, implying that their position was to conquer and rule the Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and Uzbeks.